The University of Arizona
 

ASM Occasional Electronic Papers No. 1
Homol'ovi IV: The First Village

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3-D model of Homol'ovi IV seen from above
3-D model of Homol'ovi IV seen from a distance
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Edited by E. Charles Adams

With Contributions by:
Karen R. Adams
Andrea Freeman
Trixi Bibemyre
Wendy Jones
Sarah E. Klandrud
Patrick D. Lyons
Julia Meyers
Jennifer Strand
William Walker

Arizona State Museum
The University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721-0026
© 2004 by the Arizona Board of Regents
All rights reserved.
Published 2004

 

CONTENTS

Chapter One: Introduction
Purposes for Homol'ovi IV: Material Cultural Expectations
Defense
Border maintenance
Ritual and monumentality

Chapter Two: Environment
Geology and geological resources
Water resources
Climate, flora, and fauna
Paleoenvironment

Chapter Three: Previous Research

Chapter Four: Research Design and Methodology
Space and time
Village organization and growth
Origins and migration
Relationship to other Homol'ovi villages
Methodology
Excavation strategy

Chapter Five: Cultural Setting
Migration

Chapter Six: Chronology
Ceramic crossdating
Paleoenvironmental reconstruction
Summary

Chapter Seven: Architecture
Subterranean structures
Structure 1
Structure 2
Surface structures
Structure 4
Structure 5
Structure 10
Structure 101
Structure 110
Structure 201
Structure 202
Structure 301
Structure 404
Summary
Homol'ovi plaza surfaces
Surface 1
Surface 2
Surface 2A
Surface 2B
Surface 3
Surface 4
Surface 5
Summary
Conclusions

Chapter Eight: Ceramics
Introduction
Methods of Analysis
The Assemblage
Description of Wares and Types
Decorated Wares
Tsegi Orange Ware
Jeddito Black-on-Yellow
Hopi White Ware
Tusayan White Ware
Little Colorado White Ware
Cibola White Ware
White Mountain Red Ware
Roosevelt Red Ware
Unknown Decorated Ware
Tusayan Gray Ware
Little Colorado Gray Ware
Homol'ovi Orange and Gray Ware
Alameda Brown Ware
Indeterminate and Other Plain Wares
Site Chronology
Ceramic Descriptions by Structures
Structure 2
Structure 4
Structure 5
Structure 201
Structure 301
Structure 404
Conclusion

Chapter Nine: Ground Stone
Introduction
The assemblage
Materials
Manos
Metates
Abrader
Axe and maul
Palettes
Stone bowl
Hoes
Miscellaneous hearth refuse and griddles
Miscellaneous unknown
Discussion
Acknowledgements

Chapter Ten: Flaked Stone
Methods of Analysis
Raw Material Categories
The Flakes Stone Assemblage
Reduction Strategies
Tool Assemblage
Projectile point
Conclusion

Chapter Eleven: Faunal Remains and Worked Bone
Methods
Discussion of Taxa
Leporidae—Hares and Rabbits
Rodentia—Rodents
Carnivora—Carnivores
Artiodactyla—Deer, Antelope, and Bighorn Sheep
Aves—Birds
Discussion
Summary
Worked bone at Homol'ovi IV
Faunal environment
Orientation of analysis
Analytical techniques
Functional attributes
The Homol'ovi IV assemblage

Chapter Twelve: Charred Plant and Pollen Remains
Introduction
Methods
Results
Structures
Middens
Plaza
Discussion

Chapter Thirteen: Other Material Remains: Shell
Site Distribution
Distribution of shell by genera
Summary

Chapter Fourteen: Conclusions
Excavation goals
Dating
Settlement growth
Migration
Relations with neighbors
Subsistence
Site Purpose
Analysis of results
Perimeter walls
Ladder construction
Frequency of artifacts that could be used as weapons
Rock art
Burning
Aggregation through local abandonment of small sites
Exchanged artifacts
Inter-visibility
Summary

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Map of settlement cluster
Figure 1.2 Map of Homol'ovi IV
Figure 1.3 South view of Homol'ovi IV
Figure 4.1 Homol'ovi IV
Figure 5.1 Map of Western Pueblo settlement clusters
Figure 7.1 Map of excavated structures at Homol'ovi IV
Figure 7.2 Slope and stratigraphy of Homol'ovi IV
Figure 7.3 Structure 1, Floor
Figure 7.4 Structure 1, plan view
Figure 7.5 Structure 1, profile, view west
Figure 7.6 Structure 2, floor
Figure 7.7 Structure 2, plan view
Figure 7.8 Structure 2, profile, view east
Figure 7.9 Structure 4, floor and plaza feature 6
Figure 7.10 Structures 4 and 5, plan view
Figure 7.11 Structure 4, profile, view west
Figure 7.12 Structure 5, floor 2
Figure 7.13 Structure 5, profile, view west
Figure 7.14 Structure 10, floor 1
Figure 7.15 Structure 10, plan view
Figure 7.16 Structure 10, profile, view south
Figure 7.17 Structure 101, SE wall
Figure 7.18 Structure 201, floor 1
Figure 7.19 Structure 201, plan view
Figure 7.20 Structure 201, N wall
Figure 7.21 Structure 201, profile, view west
Figure 7.22 Structure 201, feature 2
Figure 7.23 Structure 301, floor 1
Figure 7.24 Structure 301, plan view
Figure 7.25 Structure 301, profile, view east
Figure 7.26 Structure 301 and adjacent structures
Figure 7.27 Structure 404, strat 2, roof fall
Figure 7.28 Structure 404, plan view
Figure 7.29 Structure 404, profile
Figure 7.30 Plaza excavations by grid coordinates
Figure 7.31 Plaza, surface 1
Figure 7.32 Plaza, surface 2 and feature 4
Figure 7.33 Plaza, surface 2 and feature 4
Figure 8.1 Ladles and ladle handles of Tuwiuca Black-on-Orange and Jeddito Black-on-Orange
Figure 8.2 Bird effigies, knobbed jar, appliqué coil and small jar appliqué
Figure 8.3 Miniature vessels, perforated plates, worked sherd and white ware
Figure 8.4 Tuwiuca Black-on-Orange, sand temper
Figure 8.5 Tuwiuca Black-on-Orange, sand and sherd temper
Figure 8.6 Chavez Pass Black-on-Red, Kokop Black-on-Orange
Figure 8.7 Jeddito Black-on-Yellow, Black Axe Polychrome, and Huckovi Polychrome
Figure 8.8 Hopi White Ware
Figure 8.9 Tusayan White Ware Jar
Figure 8.10 Miscellaneous White Wares
Figure 8.11 Pinedale and Pinto Polychrome, Jeddito Black-on-Yellow, and White Mountain Redware
Figure 8.12 Tusayan Gray Ware, Mogollon Brown Ware, Little Colorado, and Homol'ovi Gray Ware
Figure 9.1 Whole, flat, one-sided manos
Figure 9.2 Whole and fragmentary, two opposite sided manos
Figure 9.3 Adjacent two-sided and three-sided manos
Figure 9.4 Metates
Figure 9.5 Grooved and flat abraders
Figure 9.6 Shaft straightener and hide polisher
Figure 9.7 Axe, maul, and hoe
Figure 9.8 Piki, palette, ceramic comal, and pestle
Figure 9.9 Stone bowl, shaped argillite, crystal, shaped stone, and siltstone
Figure 9.10 Facette polishing stone
Figure 9.11 Stone beads
Figure 10.1 Scrapers
Figure 10.2 Choppers and pecking stones
Figure 10.3 Drills
Figure 10.4 Projectile points
Figure 11.1 Bone awls
Figure 11.2 Bone awls
Figure 11.3 Weaving tools and notched rib
Figure 11.4 Stock, gaming piece, ring fragment, and possible hair pins
Figure 13.1 Olivella beads
Figure 13.2 Glycymeris shell bracelets
Figure 13.3 Worked shell and shell beads

LIST OF TABLES

Table 6.1 Dated radiocarbon samples from Homol'ovi IV
Table 6.2 Prevalent Datable Types at Homol'ovi IV
Table 8.1 All analyzed ceramics from Homol'ovi IV
Table 8.2 Distribution of vessels by form
Table 8.3 Frequency of decorated Wares
Table 8.4 Decorated Orange and Yellow Ware by form
Table 8.5 Frequency of Winslow Orange Ware types
Table 8.6 Frequency of Tsegi Orange Ware by Type
Table 8.7 Jeddito Yellow Ware type by frequency and by percent
Table 8.8 Frequency of decorated White Ware by form
Table 8.9 Hopi White Ware type by frequency and by percent
Table 8.10 Frequency of Tusayan White Ware types
Table 8.11 Frequency of Little Colorado White Ware types
Table 8.12 Frequency of Cibola White Ware types
Table 8.13 Decorated Red Ware and unknown ware by form
Table 8.14 Frequency of White Mountain Red Ware types
Table 8.15 Frequency of Roosevelt Red Ware types
Table 8.16 Frequency of unknown decorated by temper
Table 8.17 Frequency of Plain Ware
Table 8.18 Frequency of Plain Ware by type
Table 8.19 Alameda Brown Ware types by temper
Table 8.20 Unknown Plain Ware type by temper
Table 8.21 Mogollon Brown Ware Type by temper
Table 8.22 Prevalent Datable types at Homol'ovi IV
Table 8.23 Ceramic Ware inventory for Structure 2
Table 8.24 Ceramic Ware inventory for Structure 4
Table 8.25 Ceramic Ware inventory for Structure 5
Table 8.26 Ceramic Ware inventory for Structure 201
Table 8.27 Ceramic Ware inventory for Structure 301
Table 8.28 Ceramic Ware inventory for Structure 404
Table 8.29 Ceramic Ware inventory for all structures
Table 9.1 Artifact Frequency and Provenience
Table 9.2 Whole Mano Measurements
Table 9.3 Mano Cross-Section Configurations Homol'ovi IV
Table 9.4 Mano Cross-Section Configurations Homol'ovi III
Table 10.1 Distribution of material types by structure
Table 10.2 Artifact type by structure
Table 10.3 Artifact type by material type
Table 10.4 Distribution of projectile point types by structure
Table 10.5 Distribution of projectile point types by material type
Table 10.6 Temporal changes in retouched tool assemblages from the Homol'ovi area
Table 10.7 Distribution of material types from Homol'ovi villages
Table 11.1 A list of the taxonomic representation at Homol'ovi IV
Table 11.2 Distribution of identified Homol'ovi IV animal bone by class or order
Table 11.3 Distribution of Lagomorphs by structure
Table 11.4 Distribution of Rodents by structure
Table 11.5 Distribution of Carnivores by structure
Table 11.6 Distribution of Artiodactyls by structure
Table 11.7 Distribution of bird remains by structure
Table 11.8 Summary of bone tool types at Homol'ovi IV
Table 11.9 Summary of bone tool types of category of use
Table 12.1 Ubiquity of charred parts in 20 flotation samples
Table 12.2 Distribution of charred plant parts preserved in four midden strata in the plaza
Table 13.1 Distribution of shell artifact types by structure
Table 13.2 Distribution of shell genera by structure
Table 13.3 Relationship between artifact type and shell genera